It is possible to do if your motherboard has onboard SATA connectors. If it does than it should be either 2, 4 or in some cases 6 SATA on board connections. Usually by default the SATA configured as IDE and once the drive is connected it will try to boot. You will need to plug the Boot drive into SATA connector 1. Check the motherboard manual under SATA section. It should be pretty easy and straightforward.
Now if your motherboard does not have any SATA onboard connections than you can buy a PCI SATA card and connect the drive that way. I am sure the drive can boot that way also.
If you have 4 SATA connectors you can also buy the PATA to SATA adapter and connect your IDE drives to the SATA connectors.
This will eliminate the wide ATA cables and create more airflow inside the computer.