## Decision Theory and Rationality

*José Luis Bermúdez*

- Published in print:
- 2009
- Published Online:
- May 2009
- ISBN:
- 9780199548026
- eISBN:
- 9780191720246
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199548026.001.0001
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Science

The concept of rationality is a common thread through the human and social sciences — from political science to philosophy, from economics to sociology, from management science to decision analysis. ... More

## Realism about Situations

*Paul Weirich*

### in Realistic Decision Theory: Rules for Nonideal Agents in Nonideal Circumstances

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- November 2004
- ISBN:
- 9780195171259
- eISBN:
- 9780199834976
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/019517125X.003.0008
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

In ideal decision problems, the preference ranking of options has a stable top, but in some realistic problems there is no top option or a top option’s position is not stable–the option does not stay ... More

## PRELIMINARIES AND AGREEMENTS

*Rolf Niedermeier*

### in Invitation to Fixed-Parameter Algorithms

- Published in print:
- 2006
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198566076
- eISBN:
- 9780191713910
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198566076.003.0002
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Combinatorics / Graph Theory / Discrete Mathematics

This chapter introduces the basic mathematical formalism and discusses concepts used throughout the book. Among other things, it looks at decision problems vs optimization problems, Random Access ... More

## Getting the Message

*Ken Binmore*

### in Playing for Real: Game Theory

- Published in print:
- 2007
- Published Online:
- May 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780195300574
- eISBN:
- 9780199783748
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195300574.003.0012
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

This chapter explains how game theory treats problems of knowledge and information. The knowledge and possibility operators are defined and related to the idea of an information set in games. The ... More

## A Formal Theory of Contraction

*Neil Tennant*

### in Changes of Mind: An Essay on Rational Belief Revision

- Published in print:
- 2012
- Published Online:
- September 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780199655755
- eISBN:
- 9780191742125
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199655755.003.0004
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics, Metaphysics/Epistemology

This is the heart of the formal theory. Mathematically rigorous definitions are provided of all the formal notions that have been gently introduced in the earlier discussion. The main data type of a ... More

## Effective Playability in Arithmetical Games

*Kumaraswamy Velupillai*

### in Computable Economics: The Arne Ryde Memorial Lectures

- Published in print:
- 2000
- Published Online:
- November 2003
- ISBN:
- 9780198295273
- eISBN:
- 9780191596988
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0198295278.003.0007
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Macro- and Monetary Economics

Class games, called Arithmetical Games, are defined and recursion theoretic questions such as effective playability, diophantine complexity, etc. are posed and formally answered. In the process, ... More

## Decision Theory

*Jr. Henry E. Kyburg*

### in Science & Reason

- Published in print:
- 1991
- Published Online:
- October 2011
- ISBN:
- 9780195062533
- eISBN:
- 9780199853038
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195062533.003.0014
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Philosophy of Science

Efforts to get scientific knowledge reap valuable knowledge about the world. It is often rewarding simply to know more, but a greater benefit of knowing more is that, knowing the future, one can make ... More

## Liquidity Preference and Information

*Sandeep Kapur*

### in Dimensions of Economic Theory and Policy: Essays for Anjan Mukherji

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- September 2012
- ISBN:
- 9780198073970
- eISBN:
- 9780199081615
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198073970.003.0012
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Microeconomics

Due to the recent financial crisis, the issue of liquidity has emerged. Illiquidity reflects frictions in markets, and in asset markets can arise for various reasons. This chapter analyses how the ... More

## Informational Value in Contraction

*Isaac Levi*

### in Mild Contraction: Evaluating Loss of Information Due to Loss of Belief

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- January 2005
- ISBN:
- 9780199270705
- eISBN:
- 9780191601774
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/0199270708.003.0004
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Metaphysics/Epistemology

The informational value involved in contraction is the subject of this chapter. Probability-based notions of informational value are introduced. It is argued that rational agents need not evaluate ... More

## Rational Management of Risks

*Paul Weirich*

### in Rational Responses to Risks

- Published in print:
- 2020
- Published Online:
- August 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780190089412
- eISBN:
- 9780190089443
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780190089412.003.0006
- Subject:
- Philosophy, Logic/Philosophy of Mathematics

The literature on expected utility formulates in two ways the principle to maximize expected utility. One version of the principle requires choices that literally maximize expected utility. The other ... More

## The Value Functional: Applications

*Patrick L. Anderson*

### in The Economics of Business Valuation: Towards a Value Functional Approach

- Published in print:
- 2013
- Published Online:
- September 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780804758307
- eISBN:
- 9780804783224
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Stanford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.11126/stanford/9780804758307.003.0016
- Subject:
- Economics and Finance, Financial Economics

This chapter demonstrates practical uses of the value functional approach in the estimation of the value of operating businesses. It includes a detailed discussion of state and control variables, a ... More

## Computability and complexity

*Shawn Hedman*

### in A First Course in Logic: An Introduction to Model Theory, Proof Theory, Computability, and Complexity

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198529804
- eISBN:
- 9780191916656
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198529804.003.0011
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Computer Architecture and Logic Design

In this chapter we study two related areas of theoretical computer science: computability theory and computational complexity. Each of these subjects take mathematical problems as objects of study. ... More

## Needles in a Haystack: the Class NP

*Cristopher Moore and Stephan Mertens*

### in The Nature of Computation

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- December 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199233212
- eISBN:
- 9780191775079
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233212.003.0004
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

NP refers to a class of decision problems in which yes-instances are easy to verify. That is: a decision problem is in NP if, whenever the answer for a particular instance is ‘yes’, there is a simple ... More

## Optimization and Approximation

*Cristopher Moore and Stephan Mertens*

### in The Nature of Computation

- Published in print:
- 2011
- Published Online:
- December 2013
- ISBN:
- 9780199233212
- eISBN:
- 9780191775079
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199233212.003.0009
- Subject:
- Physics, Theoretical, Computational, and Statistical Physics

This chapter focuses on the relationships between decision problems and their optimisation versions. It shows that, for most problems, the optimal solution can be realised in polynomial time if and ... More

## Computing and Deciding

*Giuseppe Primiero*

### in On the Foundations of Computing

- Published in print:
- 2019
- Published Online:
- July 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198835646
- eISBN:
- 9780191873232
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198835646.003.0003
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Computational Mathematics / Optimization, Logic / Computer Science / Mathematical Philosophy

This chapter illustrates the basic tools of computability theory, essential to the formulation of the decision problem and the definition of the notion of computable function.

## Decision theory and Bayesian statistics

*Andrew Gelman and Deborah Nolan*

### in Teaching Statistics: A Bag of Tricks

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- September 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198785699
- eISBN:
- 9780191827518
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198785699.003.0017
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Educational Mathematics

This chapter outlines some of our more effective demonstrations for teaching decision theory and Bayesian statistics. Our contribution here is in the tricks used to involve students; the ideas behind ... More

## Towards a Predictive Computational Complexity Theory for Periodically Specified Problems: A Survey

*Harry B. Hunt III and Madhav V. Marathe*

### in Computational Complexity and Statistical Physics

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780195177374
- eISBN:
- 9780197562260
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780195177374.003.0022
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

The preceding chapters in this volume have documented the substantial recent progress towards understanding the complexity of randomly specified combinatorial problems. This improved understanding ... More

## Solvable and Unsolvable Problems (1954)

*Alan Turing*

### in The Essential Turing

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198250791
- eISBN:
- 9780191916526
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198250791.003.0024
- Subject:
- Computer Science, History of Computer Science

In Chapter 1 Turing proves the existence of mathematical problems that cannot be solved by the universal Turing machine. There he also advances the thesis, now called the Church–Turing thesis,that ... More

## Introduction: Where Statistical Physics Meets Computation

*Allon G. Percus, Gabriel Istrate, and Cristopher Moore*

### in Computational Complexity and Statistical Physics

- Published in print:
- 2005
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780195177374
- eISBN:
- 9780197562260
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780195177374.003.0007
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Mathematical Theory of Computation

Computer science and physics have been closely linked since the birth of modern computing. This book is about that link. John von Neumann’s original design for digital computing in the 1940s was ... More

## Propositional logic

*Shawn Hedman*

### in A First Course in Logic: An Introduction to Model Theory, Proof Theory, Computability, and Complexity

- Published in print:
- 2004
- Published Online:
- November 2020
- ISBN:
- 9780198529804
- eISBN:
- 9780191916656
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198529804.003.0005
- Subject:
- Computer Science, Computer Architecture and Logic Design

In propositional logic, atomic formulas are propositions. Any assertion will do. For example, … A = “Aristotle is dead,” B = “Barcelona is on the Seine,” and C = “Courtney Love is tall” … are ... More