AMD has a processor rating on all models; for example, an AMD Athlon XP 2000+ running at 1.67ghz can compete with a P4 2.0ghz. The focus is of the QuantiSpeed architecture of the processor; which allows higher performance through chip architecture rather than clock speed.
Answer to question 2:
Intel Itanium / Itanium 2 (scheduled to be released); as an example; but they never really caught on in the server market.
Also, Sun has been making 64-bit processors for years. Doubt this is really what you meant when saying something bout this though. All of the Sparcs/Sun Workstations/Sun Servers, etc. run 64-bit Risc based processors.
As for 1ghz/2ghz being obsolute, when did my 200mzh and 350mzh go out of style? I have never owned anything faster then either of thoughs and really have never needed to either. Everything I wanted to do I did in Linux or it wasn't a high-end game. Everything else that is CPU intensive (like DVD ripping, web server, compiling) just takes longer, and that isn't really a big deal to me either. Hell, I just upgraded my 2x burner to a 24x. Bought the 2x back in '95 when they first came out for around $250. hehe...goes to show how much stuff changes in so little time.