My question is, if I buy this new power supply (400-500w) will it be enough to supply power to everything I need? Also, I don't want to come home to find out that I need a bunch of new hardware just to work with my power supply, I'm not sure if it works like that, but please let me know so I can have some peace at mind.
A new power supply may solve your problem, but I find it odd that your current power supply can support everything+old SATA burner, but not everything+a slightly different SATA burner. You'd think it being a better brand would mean it were more efficient.
I don't really see what else the problem could be though, unless there's something up with the drive which interferes with POST.
Have you tried turning it on with the drive's power plugged in, but not the SATA cable?
Anyway, if you do get a new power supply, provided you get a decent brand it will support all your current hardware, however if you have a pre-built it's possible it may not fit in your case.
Originally Posted by EndlessChaos
500W is recommendable since this supports a massive amount of juice that can give power to anything connected.
Not precisely, amperage is a much more important number. You get 500W PSUs which only supply 20A on the 12v rail, which wouldn't support a GTX280 along with everything else, whereas good brands like Corsair are only 400W but gives 30A on the 12v. Less wattage, but better able to support a GTX280 with everything else.