Thanks for the stop code. Here is what this particular website has to say about that STOP code:
Windows lost access to the system partition or boot volume during the startup process.
Typical causes: Installing incorrect device drivers when installing or upgrading storage adapter hardware, or a virus.
I am quite stumped. On one hand we have the original problem being transferred when you've initially put that harddrive in. So it could be a virus. On the other hand, you've tried another harddrive which wouldnt be infected (atleast from what I understand) and it's getting the same problem. So that rules viruses out.
Losing the boot volume during the startup process? Well, this could happen. But at the same time youve swapped in and out different drives? Not too probable. System partition? Same sort of deal. Would depend on the way the drive has been setup. And if you've used multiple drives independant of eachother then I would rule this out as well.
Have you checked that your IDE cables are firmly secured onto the motherboard and vice versa? Almost seems to me as if there's a loose connection, hence the randomness of the blank screens. Perhaps after putting that drive in and out you've bumped something. (But I would think if you've been accessing the drives in linux with no worries this isnt the case).
The last optional cause is incorrect drivers. This is a rare problem when it comes to basic harddrive configurations (im guessing you dont have any RAID or SCSI type setups), so would think this isnt too probable either.
Check your connections. If that doesn't help, try putting the harddrive in on the Secondary IDE channel (disconnet your cd drives for the time being) and check to see if it's the same deal.