What OS do you have? If Win7, what version (Home Premium, Pro, etc.)?
Generally it's a 50/50 shot if on Win7. I've seen Win7 Pro work more often than the other editions.
For XP, you just need to perform a repair install from the disc.
I would just try it honestly. If it boots up - great. Let it install the drivers, and install any drivers it missed manually. If it doesn't work, it will BSOD and you'll just have to reinstall (or try using Sysprep).
Sysprep: Transferring a hard drive to a new computer? [Solved] - Hard Drives - Storage
You can also do an in-place install without formatting the drive with Win7/8. During Setup, if you choose the partition with the existing Windows install on it without formatting, it will notify you of this, and will say it will move all your files to C:\Windows.old.